Before analyzing financial statements, accounting experts gather information such as company history, assets, liabilities, ownership equity and capital assets among others. They also collect other related data such as debt and payroll. All these pieces of information are then analyzed to create the financial data that would support the financial statement analysis. When doing this, special attention is paid to the financial statement itself, because the interpretation of the financial data is also crucial in supporting the accuracy of the reports produced.
For financial statement analysis, a set of rules or principles are followed in formulating an accurate methodology. This involves defining the nature of the businesses, its history, goal and objectives, current financial performance and past performance. Then the actual financial statements are collected from different sources. The most common sources are: internal records of accounts, bank statements, surveys, advertisements and public statements. After collecting all the financial statements, the actual data analysis is done. Data analysis is then done to support the accuracy of the financial statements on the basis of the actual data collected.
Financial statement analysis involves the identification of the accounting procedures followed by the accounting firm. Then it determines if those procedures are necessary, relevant and reasonable under the circumstances. Next it analyzes those procedures and compares them with the information provided in the financial statements. Finally, the results are given to the owners of the business. Therefore, analysis of financial statements requires the collection, evaluation and interpretation of relevant information, including data, which are then compared to the information provided in the accounting records.
Financial statements can be analyzed either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal analysis involves analyzing the financial performance of the business in a vertical manner. Financial statements can be analyzed in a horizontal manner as well but it is easier to analyze vertical trends using this method. By simply analyzing the vertical trends in the data, one can predict the future profitability of the business.
Horizontal Statement Analysis uses the business’s working capital to predict the movement of funds. Most business owners keep track of their cash flow. They can analyze the past and the present trend of their cash flow to predict the future cash flow. By examining the pattern, the managers can formulate a strategy to improve the cash flow. This type of financial statements analysis is also useful for investors.
As an investor, analyzing your own financial condition is important. However, it is also helpful for investors to analyze the performance of other investors. By examining the performance of other investors, you will get a better idea about the financial condition of the firm. As a result, you can make better decisions for your own firm.
Horizontal analysis of the balance sheet are usually performed by Certified Public Accountants (CPA). The two types of analysis are different and require different methods. In addition, you need to take into account other factors such as original cost, effective interest rate and dividends received. Horizontal analysis and balance sheet provide information about the financial health of a company.